Interview with Dr. Boruczkowski, a specialist in stem cell transplantation
Mesenchymal stem cells are the most notorious representative of adult stem cells,
also being the most studied from the point of view of clinical applications, but waiting
and the most likely therapeutic results.
The presence of MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) in the bone marrow was extensively theorized in the second half of the twentieth century, and today much is being discussed based on a new discovery - Wharton gelatin mesenchymal cells collected from the umbilical cord of the newborn , at birth.
Dr. Boruczkowski, a specialist doctor in the Biogenis group, gave an interview about mesenchymal cells in the finalization phase of preparations for the launch of the new Biogenis service, harvesting mesenchymal cells from Wharton gelatin.
1. Dr. Boruczkowski, can you tell us a few words about yourself?
I specialize in the clinical transplantology of hematopoietic cells and a specialist with grade II in pediatric diseases. I worked for over 18 years at the Oncology, Hematology and Pediatric Transplantology clinic in Poznan, Poland. Since 2006, I started working with the Stem Cell Bank of Poland, part of the Famicord Group as well as Biogneis and I am responsible for the collaboration between PBKM S.A. and its partners (stem cell banks, hospitals, clinics) both locally and internationally.
2. What are stem cells, in fact?
Stem cells in our body are non-specialized cells - this means that they have the ability to multiply, theoretically, without limit, self-renew, that is, they divide into stem cells, theoretically for an unlimited period of time and can also give birth of specialized cells. From the beginning of the century. XXI, stem cells for different treatments (clinical applications), were harvested from bone marrow, peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. Cultured in the laboratory (in vitro), stem cells are an ideal biological material for transplantation or regenerative medicine.
3. Regarding Wharton gelatin and mesenchymal stem cells. Are there such crops recently?
Yeah sure. The cells harvested from Wharton gelatin, specifically from the stromal matrix of the umbilical cord, are multipotent, being able to differentiate, for example, into bone, fat, cartilaginous cells, but only in a single cell type. In other words, they can differentiate into cells derived from a single embryonic layer. What is important is that Wharton gelatin can be harvested without any risk to the mother and newborn, and this harvest is not subject to any ethical issues.
Wharton gel cells are a new opportunity for the treatment of many diseases, as opposed to stem cells harvested from embryonic tissue.
4. Why are cells harvested from Wharton gelatin so important? Due to differentiation? What is this?
Differentiation is a physiological process by which less specialized cells are transformed into specialized cells. Our development involves the differentiation of a single cell - the fertilized egg and of course the multiplication. But what is even more interesting for scientists is the transdifferentiation process that does not normally take place in the human body. This is a laboratory procedure whereby a differentiated cell can be transformed into another differentiated cell.
A large number of publications treat the subject of cells after transdifferentiation in the case of animals and human patients undergoing clinical studies (clinical applications in children and adults).
5. What do you think about the special situations involving stem cells - the genesis of tumors?
Teratoma formations were encountered, but only if embryonic stem cells from one mouse were transplanted to another. The fact that the problem appeared in the case of animal tests has no relevance but, theoretically, it raises questions regarding the embryonic stem cells. In the case of stem cells harvested from Wharton gelatin, prior to therapy, we must bear in mind that at least to date, these cells are not tumorigenic, for the most part.
6. Is it possible for Wharton gel cells to be used in therapy to be rejected?
Any therapy based on stem cells is hit by the problem of immunoreactivity but only in the case where the stem cells are not compatible (for example with human leukocyte antigens = HLA) with the recipient. The latest medical articles further suggest that immunosuppression will no longer be a problem in the near future.